Types of Cybersecurity- The goal of this Cybersecurity Types Guide is to provide a basic framework for integrating cybersecurity operations and a quick review of the security controls that should be used.
In today’s digital world, cybercrime is an increasing threat. Because most small businesses lack their own cyber security teams, cyber thieves seeking financial or commercial gain are more likely to target these smaller, more vulnerable targets.
The numerous types of cybersecurity and associated precautions are described in this Types of Cybersecurity Guide. We’ve put together a list of 12 cybersecurity themes, as well as basic and sophisticated tips, to help you defend yourself from data breaches and cyber-attacks.
12 Types of Cybersecurity / Cybersecurity Themes:
ENGAGE TOP MANAGEMENT
It is critical to include top management in the project in order to develop a long-term training strategy that will benefit the entire firm.
- Make a decision on who will be in charge of information security.
- Identify your ICT risk and safeguard your company’s future.
- Comply with privacy, data processing, and security legal and regulatory obligations.
- Keep an eye on your networks for cyber attacks and weaknesses.
- Ascertain that the information security officer is a separate entity from the IT department.
- Define the system and network monitoring goals clearly.
- Determine the legal ramifications of a data breach, a network outage, and so on.
- Conduct a risk and security audit on a regular basis. Management should be informed of the findings and action plan.
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DEVELOP A SECURITY POLICY AND A CODE OF CONDUCT
This is a set of workplace regulations, legislation, and practises that must be observed. It is based on current dangers and aims to hold management and staff more responsibility for security incident prevention.
- Create and implement user arrival and departure protocols (staff, trainees, etc.).
- Define security roles and duties (physical, personnel).
- Make a code of behaviour for the usage of computing resources and distribute it.
- Security audits should be scheduled and carried out.
- Create a classification scheme for sensitive data and ensure that it is traceable.
- Incorporate “need to know,” “least privilege,” and “segregation of duties” into your company’s policies and procedures.
- Publish a policy on responsible disclosure.
- Protect critical documents by keeping them in locked cabinets.
- Using a shredder, destroy crucial documents.
- Dispose of any documents left on the printer at the end of the day.
- If Locked Print is available, use it.
- Create a cybersecurity concept and training plan.
SENSITIZE YOUR WORKERS TO CYBER RISKS
In the chain of information security, workers are the weakest link. Make your internal and external personnel aware of the hazards associated with information security. Make sure they grasp what you’re saying and put their knowledge to the test. In the event of an attack, they will be your first line of defence.
- Make sure your users are aware of your code of behaviour. Remind users of the necessity of safe behaviour on a regular basis.
- Remind users on a regular basis that information should be treated as sensitive and handled in accordance with privacy laws.
- Educate consumers on how to spot phishing (e-mail fraud) and how to respond.
- Inform accounting employees about the phenomenon of “CEO fraud” and establish control processes for the payment execution process.
- Incorporate knowledge of and adherence to the code of conduct into the appraisal of employees.
- Evaluate user awareness and responsiveness on a regular basis.
MANAGE YOUR IMPORTANT COMPUTER RESOURCES
It goes without saying that protecting sensitive data is a top priority for today’s businesses. Information systems are vulnerable to a variety of dangers, and most enterprise systems hold sensitive personal data.
- Make sure that everyone understands the value of all equipment and software licences.
- Keep a thorough map of all your networks and relationships readily hand.
- Use a configuration management tool to keep track of your settings (or at least one tool such as Microsoft MMC, etc.).
- Establish a fundamental security setup.
- Ensure that security clauses are included in Service Level Agreements and other agreements.
- Implement a change management strategy.
- Ensure that all of your networks have the same level of security.
- Audit all setups on a regular basis (including servers, firewalls, and network components).
UPDATE ALL PROGRAMS
Updates are critical for protecting your devices since they can correct faults or security flaws. They also provide you with the most up-to-date software features and design enhancements.
Consider an antivirus programme: An antivirus is a piece of software that protects your computer from viruses and malware, as well as ensuring the security of your device (computer or smartphone). Because new computer viruses are generated on a daily basis, this software must be updated on a frequent basis.
- Create a “patch” culture within the company (workstations, mobile devices, servers, network components, etc.).
- As soon as feasible, update all software for security.
- Automate the process of updating and evaluate its efficacy.
- For new patches, create a test and reference environment.
- All third-party software, such as browsers and plugins, should be updated.
- Make a thorough backup of the servers before installing the update, and make emergency repair discs thereafter.
INSTALL ANTIVIRUS PROTECTION
This is a critical step in safeguarding your personal information!
You have a lot of files and data on your computer or gadget. This contains images as well as text content (pay slips, taxes, scans, etc.). It also contains information about your browsing habits.
This information can be used to exploit sensitive information, perhaps resulting in the theft of your digital identity. Spoofing your identity with your personal information (phone number, email, photographs, etc.) is an example of this. This spoofing could be exploited to cause you financial or reputational harm.
Viruses can infect computers as well as cellphones (iOS or Android). They can also harm tablets and other electronic gadgets.
It is critical to ensure that antivirus software is installed on all of your devices.
- All workstations and servers have antivirus software installed.
- Antivirus updates are performed automatically.
- Users are familiar with how antivirus software warns them of a virus infestation.
- An ICT specialist examines all virus alerts.
- All mobile devices have antivirus software installed.
- The EICAR test is used to evaluate antivirus on a regular basis.
SAVE ALL INFORMATION
Employees at your firm share critical papers on a daily basis, both internally and outside. Your data must be backed up on a regular basis for legal, strategic, and security reasons. It’s a good idea to hire a solution provider to help you with your backup strategy. A reputable company can ensure that your data is backed up and can help you restore it if necessary.
Adopting a backup solution isn’t enough to ensure data protection. Within your firm, you should set a data backup policy and processes that must be followed by all personnel.
- Back up your crucial data on a regular basis.
- Backup solutions can be hosted on your own servers or in the cloud.
- Backups should be kept offline and at a different place (if possible, away from their source).
Backups are kept in a safe deposit box or a secure data centre.
Periodic restore tests are carried out to assess the backup quality.
Protect data in the cloud by encrypting it.
MANAGE ACCESS TO YOUR COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
All computers connected to a server in the office can be considered part of the network. You are in charge of the security of this massive system, and you must protect it from invaders. You must also verify that data on PCs within the network is secure.
Protecting your systems requires maintaining the physical security of your computing environment. Unauthorized access is possible on every linked system that is left unattended.
Intruders and illegal access must be kept out of the spaces surrounding the computer and its components.
You must also assign a password or connection control to a system or network to prevent unauthorised access. Password protection is required for all accounts on a system. A password is a simple authentication technique that protects the entire network from intruders while being easy. Brute force assaults are prevented by using a strong password.
- All default passwords should be changed.
- For daily tasks, no one has administrator capabilities.
- Keep a list of system administrator accounts that is both limited and up to date.
- Passwords must be at least 10 characters long (a mix of character types) and must be changed on a regular basis or whenever a breach is suspected.
- Never share your passwords or use multiple accounts.
- Disable any accounts that are no longer in use right away.
- Make password and authentication rules obligatory.
- User groups are in charge of rights and privileges.
- Users are only given access to the data they need to complete their jobs.
- Use multi-factor authentication to detect and block unneeded accounts.
- Block Internet access for accounts with administrator privileges.
- Detect unauthorised access to data and systems (delays, applications, data, etc.).
- Audit the central directory on a regular basis (Active Directory or LDAP directory).
- Create multiple security zones and use a badge system to restrict worker access.
- Save all of your visits.
- Cleaning the office should be done during working hours or under constant monitoring.
MOBILE DEVICES AND SECURE WORKSTATIONS
The number of threats to smartphones is steadily increasing. Hackers are particularly interested in Android devices. All users are at risk, but business users are particularly vulnerable.
Computer attacks are also a common target for business workstations. One of the most important steps you can take to secure your infrastructure is to implement simple and quick tips for protecting your employees’ workstations.
Hackers look for vulnerabilities in poorly protected workstations to gain access to personal information. Workstations can also serve as entry points for attacks on the company’s more sensitive systems. To protect yourself from these dangers, you can take a few simple steps.
- Workstations and mobile devices that are not in use are automatically locked.
- We never leave our laptops, smartphones, or tablets unattended.
- External media’s “Autorun” function should be disabled.
- All data should be stored or copied on a server or NAS (Network Area Storage).
- Discarded data-containing hard drives, media, and printers are physically destroyed.
- Personal devices should not be connected to the organization’s information system.
- Encrypt laptop hard discs.
- Sensitive or confidential information is only sent in encrypted form.
- Unregistered portable media cannot be connected due to technical limitations.
- The information stored in the cloud is protected by encryption (eg BoxCryptor).
- The cloud provider’s guarantees are based on the criticality of the information being stored.
- Before external media players, such as USB sticks, are linked to a computer, they are scanned for viruses.
SECURING SERVERS AND NETWORK COMPONENTS
The security steps to be taken to secure a server are determined by the services it provides, the level of confidentiality of the data it holds, and the hazards it faces.
Server preparation, installation, and maintenance are the responsibility of system administrators or network administrators. A system administrator’s responsibilities do not end with the setup and configuration of machines. In the long run, this person will play a critical role in network security.
A company’s vulnerability increases as it becomes increasingly linked. E-mail, mobility, video conferencing, and online tools have all become part of our daily life. These technologies also present new hurdles for your company’s security.
- Change all default passwords and deactivate any accounts that are no longer in use.
- WPA2 encryption is used to secure Wi-Fi networks.
- Ports and services that are no longer in use should be closed.
- Avoid connecting to servers through a remote connection.
- Apps and protocols that are secure should be used.
- On servers and firewalls, security logs are kept for at least one month.
- The public Wi-Fi network and the business network are separate.
- Protect enterprise Wi-Fi using WPA2. Security records are preserved for at least 6 months.
- Enterprise having a device registration system.
- All systems should be reinforced in accordance with the supplier’s recommendations.
- For server administration, utilise a network that is (logically) separate from the user’s network.
- Examine all server, firewall, and network component events and alarms.
- An analysis and alerting system based on alerts for detecting harmful conduct (SIEM).
- All communications are monitored by an IDS / IPS system (Intrusion Detection / Prevention System).
- Only a small number of employees have physical access to servers and network components.
- Access to servers and network components is logged on a physical level.
- Perform vulnerability scanning and intrusion testing.
SECURE REMOTE ACCESS
The traditional network security barrier is blurring as a result of mobile workers, cloud usage, and greater network access for consultants and business partners. To keep data secure when employees are inside and outside of the office, companies must implement remote access security solutions.
When enterprise resources are scattered across local, cloud, and virtual applications, having a centralised management point from which universal access restrictions can be created and enforced to maintain security and transparency is vital.
- When remote access is inactive for an extended length of time, it should be automatically closed.
- Only allow remote access when absolutely essential.
- All connections to the company’s network are encrypted and safe.
- Endpoints are the only ones that can connect to a Virtual Private Network (VPN).
- When connecting from public networks, strong authentication is used.
- Remote access is restricted to the providers’ IP addresses and the required areas.
HAVE A PLAN FOR CONTINUITY OF ACTIVITIES AND AN INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PLAN
This is a set of actions aimed at assuring the continuity of critical business services in various crisis situations (even in the face of catastrophic shocks). Risk analysis is included in a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to deal with numerous eventualities. It could be an IT issue, a data breach, a natural calamity on the premises, a fire, or something else else.
The business continuity strategy ensures that the company’s critical services are maintained, such as the work of specific services on a backup site. It also allows for the recuperation of activities in a planned manner.
When there is a possibility of important activities being disrupted, which could result in financial or reputational losses, a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is required in any industry.
Correctly responding to scenarios, such as delivering a clear and accurate alarm utilising a crisis management system, can boost employee and consumer trust.
To maintain a company’s long-term viability, it’s critical to manage and mitigate the risks involved with change.
One or more crisis risk analyses must be carried out:
Analysis of the operational ramifications: what are the activities and processes that are critical to the company’s long-term viability in the event of a crisis?
Is the usage of technology critical to the smooth operation of the business? What consequences should we expect if affirmation is granted?
Chemical, Flood, or Fire Risk Assessment: Does the company have a flammable substance? Is it situated in a flood-prone area? Is it bordered by other businesses that use hazardous materials? The proximity of other threats, both internal and external, can trigger a calamity.
- To respond to an issue, you should have an incident management plan.
- Have a business continuity plan in place to ensure the company’s survival.
- All employees must be aware of who to notify in the event of an occurrence.
- Distribute and keep contact point information up to date (internal and external contacts, management and technical contacts, etc.)
- All incidents should be reported to management.
- Annually evaluate and test these plans.
- Examine whether or not insurance against cyber-attacks is a good idea.
- Utility services should have emergency devices installed (electricity, telephone, Internet, etc.).
Cybercrime is on the rise, and businesses are increasingly being targeted. Nearly 44% of small firms in the United States have been victims of a cyberattack, and the figure is growing every year. In 2019, this crime could cost more than $ 2 billion. This is a fourfold increase over 2015.
Using each of the 12 forms of cybersecurity that we discussed, a firm can be saved by developing a strong, multi-layered security strategy.
Employee training and security technology adoption will provide a first line of defence and drastically minimise the number of security breaches.
Finally, the second and most crucial layer will be a solid backup and recovery system that allows firms to immediately reboot in the case of a significant crisis.