Machine learning, one of the most exciting and quickly developing areas of computer science, has given us self-driving cars and nearly spot-on Netflix suggestions. But how exactly does it all work?
What is Data Labelling in Machine Learning?
Data labelling, also known as data tagging, is detecting raw data, such as text or objects in videos and photos, and assigning informative and descriptive tags so that a machine learning model may learn from it. On the other hand, data annotation is labelling data for machine learning algorithms.
What is Machine Learning?
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence that allows machines to learn from data to find patterns and make predictions. This allows computers to function effectively without the need for programming.
When most people talk about machine learning, they refer to computers’ ability to learn independently.
Types of Machine Learning
There are four types of machine learning:
1. Supervised Learning
As the name implies, this type of machine learning involves supervision. Training involves feeding labelled training data to the algorithms and defining the variables the algorithm should assess for correlations.
To train a machine learning model, you first give it labelled data and test it on unlabeled data.
Under a supervised learning framework, effective models can be developed for a wide variety of business needs, including:
- Spam detection and email filtering
- Predicting how much people will pay for homes in the future
- Classifying bank transactions to determine which are legit and which are fraudulent
- Discovering potential risk factors for diseases
- Determining whether an applicant is low-risk or high-risk
- Predicting when industrial equipment will fail based on its mechanical parts.
2. Unsupervised Learning
Unsupervised learning involves training a machine on an unlabeled dataset and allowing it to make predictions autonomously. An unsupervised learning method tries to classify an unsorted dataset based on the data’s similarities, differences, and patterns.
Some example use cases include:
- Grouping customers based on their purchases.
- Classifying inventory based on numbers that represent production or sales performance.
- Using data to identify customer associations; for example, a customer who buys one handbag is likely to be interested in a shoe model.
3. Semi-Supervised Learning
Semi-supervised learning is a type of machine learning that combines aspects of supervised and unsupervised learning. It trains its algorithms with a mix of labelled and unlabeled datasets. Semi-supervised learning overcomes the constraints of supervised and unsupervised learning by using both datasets.
4. Reinforcement Learning
Reinforcement learning is based on rewarding a computer program when it behaves the way you want. With this technique, the computer program will learn which actions are rewarded and what those rewards mean. It’s important to note that there is no need for human input for this type of learning.
All you need to do is set up your desired behavior and then tell the computer program what constitutes a correct answer. If done correctly, the program will devise ways of achieving your desired goal over time.
A more advanced form of this type of learning would be Deep Reinforcement Learning, where neural networks can produce their random input that may eventually lead to your desired goal.
There are still a lot of potential uses for this type of machine learning. Here are a few examples:
- Teaching cars to park themselves and drive themselves
- Reducing traffic jams through dynamic traffic light control
- Robots learn policies by analyzing raw video images and reproducing the actions they observe
Applications of Machine Learning
Businesses have seen the value of machine learning technologies in enhancing productivity and gaining a competitive advantage. Let’s take a peek at the top ML applications:
Image recognition can be used to identify and classify the content of social media photographs, detect and classify malware, and even recognize road signs in video footage for autonomous driving.
If you’ve ever uploaded a photo to your social media account, you’re probably familiar with this technology. It may be as simple as locating a dog or as complex as facial recognition.
Online retailers regularly use machine learning to offer product recommendations to clients. By analyzing your past searches, purchases, and shopping cart history, these sites can tailor product recommendations to your preferences.
Siri, Alexa, and Google Now are just a few examples of popular virtual personal assistants. These voice-activated devices can perform various functions, including airline search, calendar reading, and scheduling appointments.
Data is collected and processed when the user interacts with these gadgets using machine learning. With this information, the algorithm may then generate personalized recommendations.
The Future of Machine Learning
Intelligent machines can revolutionize your business and help you address the challenges of an ever-changing market, but only if you know how to leverage the power of data. It has helped businesses make well-informed decisions necessary to streamline operations.
Researchers are constantly searching for new ways to make models more adaptable and to provide computers the ability to transfer the knowledge they’ve acquired from one task to another.