Defense in Depth- Defense in Depth (DiD) is an information security strategy that employs a variety of security measures and procedures. To protect the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of the network and data, these security procedures are often layered across the entire computer and system network.
We must accept that there is no one-size-fits-all answer to thwart all cyber-threats. Using a number of security measures, on the other hand, provides a perception of comprehensive protection against a wide range of current and emerging dangers. DiD also aids in the incorporation of redundancy in the event that one of the mechanisms fails. Simply put, a good DiD method improves the security of computers and networks against a variety of attack vectors.
Important Points to Remember
- Defense in Depth (DiD) is a method for providing a perception of comprehensive protection against a wide range of cyber threats by combining a number of security tactics and policies.
- Across all levels of the IT hierarchy, organisations can use a layered approach to information security.
- Multiple protection measures, such as firewalls, integrity auditing solutions, data encryption, virus scanners, and intrusion detection systems, are used in Defense in Depth. Several security principles and best practises are also included in a good DiD security plan.
- Defense in Depth is important because it improves network security redundancy and so eliminates single points of failure.
How Defense in Depth Works
Across all levels of the IT hierarchy, organisations can use a layered approach to information security. From a single computer accessing the organisational network to a multi-user enterprise’s wide area networks, Defense in Depth considerably improves an entity’s security profile (WAN). There is no single security layer that can properly safeguard a company’s whole network. Due to gaps established by a single security solution, hackers can uncover weaknesses in diverse regions of the network. To properly plug these security weaknesses, Defense in Depth employs several controls such as firewalls, integrity auditing solutions, data encryption, malware scanners, and intrusion detection systems.
Defense in Depth Best Practices, Tools, and Policies
The following security tools, rules, and best practises are included (but not limited to) in an effective Defense in Depth security strategy:
These software or hardware tools control network traffic by allowing or disallowing it based on security rules and regulations. Depending on the security environment, the rules in a DiD framework include whitelisting or blacklisting IP addresses. Application-specific firewalls, such as secure email gateways and Web Application Firewalls, are also included in DiD’s functionality (WAF). These technologies have capabilities for detecting malicious behaviour directed at a single application.
Intrusion Detection or Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS)
An IDS notifies users when malicious network traffic is detected, whereas an IPS tries to prevent system compromise. These security technologies detect assaults based on signatures of known harmful behaviour.
Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)
Client systems, such as mobile phones or personal PCs, run EDR software. By performing rulesets that provide antivirus detection, alert, analysis, threat triage, intelligence, and protection, the software improves data security.
Network segmentation is the process of dividing networks into sub-networks based on business requirements. Organizational functions such as management, finance, human resources, and operations are frequently represented by many sub-networks. Segmentation is achieved within a DiD framework utilising firewall rules and network switches.
The Principle of Least Privilege
The idea of least privilege includes technological and regulatory restrictions to ensure that users, processes, and systems have access to only the resources they need to perform their tasks.
When it comes to information and computer security, updates are critical. As a result, DiD frameworks use patch management to apply software, middleware, and plugin upgrades. The patches make it possible for DiD security mechanisms to remedy flaws that could allow unwanted access.
Why Does Defense in Depth Matter?
As previously said, there is no one-size-fits-all solution to cybersecurity issues. Defense in Depth is important, though, because it improves network security redundancy and so prevents single points of failure. The method lengthens the time and complexity required to successfully compromise the entire network. Indeed, DiD security frameworks make it more difficult for hackers to accomplish their goal while simultaneously raising the likelihood of a prospective attack being discovered and halted in a timely manner.
A DiD technique is commonly used in physical security frameworks to secure important equipment and material assets. Officials, for example, use a combination of locks, security cameras, and possession logs to safeguard the physical election environment. Election equipment and infrastructure are effectively safeguarded thanks to the records, cameras, and locks. Another example is in the banking industry, where workers and valuables are protected by bulletproof glass, vaults, and security cameras.
DiD Control Areas
DiD’s core concept entails the ability to defend a system against a variety of threats using a variety of different ways. A layering strategy that combines many levels of control is used in this complete security method. Physical, technical, and administrative tools are all part of the DiD framework:
The tools and equipment that restrict physical access are part of the physical parts of DiD security control. CCTV cameras, guards, door access control, and fences are just a few examples.
Technical controls are the software and hardware that secure IT systems and resources inside a DiD architecture. Authentication, biometric readers, firewalls, IPS/IDS, VPNs, and disc encryption are all examples. Technical controls are primarily used to limit access to system contents.
Administrative controls are established by an organization’s procedures and policies. Their job is to ensure that relevant guidance on IT security and compliance issues is available. Hiring processes, security regulations, and data handling protocols are just a few examples of administrative DiD initiatives.
Common DiD Methods
Implementing more than one of the levels outlined below is a great way to create a DiD security framework:
- System/application security
This layer incorporates standards and practices such as;
- Antivirus/antimalware software
- Sandboxing techniques
- Intrusion Detection Systems
- Hashing passwords
- Vulnerability scanners
- Auditing and logging
- Security awareness training
- Multi-factor authentication
- Access control
- Network security
This layer integrates;
- Virtual private networks (VPN)
- Physical security
Standard tools and practices include;
- Physical security (e.g., locks)
- Data-centric security